عنوان المقالة [English]
The literature of the filthy city (dystopia) is the literature of an imaginary and corrupt society that is ruled by chaos, this type of literature depicts an imaginary world in which goodness is depleted and absolute evil reigns over it. Its most prominent features include destruction, murder, cruelty, poverty and disease. This literary type, after the proper and decent life for the writers was not achieved in reality, In many of their literary works, it has appeared in the form of an imaginary world full of evil. Arab literature is also not free of this type of literature, Arab poets and elders have paid attention to this concept in their poetic works and literary texts. Among the writers who embodied the filthy city in their literary works is Jalal Bergess, a Jordanian novelist and the author of the novel "Defater al-Waraq". In this work, the author depicts a horrible imaginary city whose events revolve around murder, destruction and corruption. This is the result of the bitter realities of the Jordanian society and the existing class divide in it as a result of the rule of the government and the corrupt administrative system, as well as the continuous conflicts with the Israeli occupiers, which has led the Arab countries to destruction, unrest and chaos. This article deals with a descriptive-analytical approach with the aim of investigating the phenomena of dystopia such as poverty, deprivation, extensive government corruption, war, killing and destruction and the manifestation of these concepts in the novel of the "Defater al-Waraq". One of the other goals of this essay is to introduce the novel "Defater al-Waraq" as a socio-political novel which has depicted the vices of society with the aim of achieving an ideal and desirable society. Considering the importance of research, the authors of the article, relying on the elements of dystopia, try to find the data that leads to the phenomenon of dystopia in the society and also to analyze and examine how its signs appear in the novel "Defater al-Waraq" . This research has reached this conclusion that Jalal Bergess, psychological conditions governing the characters of the novel such as abnormalities and moral deviations have appeared which they do'nt find a solution to correct it and disobeying the rational commands brings their satisfaction. This phenomenon is not only limited to the poor and needy so that the rich and the holders of government positions are also suffering from moral deviation and their moral deviance has been manifested in the form of harassing others. Personality duality is another psychological phenomenon that it can be seen in the novel "Defater al-Waraq" that the characters of the story are in a difficult struggle between doing good deeds and bad deeds. The author of the novel has not forgotten the lives of the disillusioned and the homeless and has depicted the visible and hidden aspects of their lives. Another sign of dystopia in the novel is the war and conflict with the Zionist regime, which has led to the poverty and misery of the people. On the other hand, the ruling system in the novel "Defater al-Waraq" is a tyrannical power that has a great influence on events , although it may have an invisible presence like Utopia. In this novel, the ruling system has classified people into different categories, A group that has freely monopolized everything and have built their own utopian world and they have marginalized the rest of the people and they have deprived them of all their human rights. Another sign of government corruption is the expansion of the usury phenomenon in state banks, which swallows people's wealth and assets, that the result of this is the poverty and hardship that is brought to the people. Jalal Bergees has depicted the state of poverty and displacement of the people in such a way that their situation is far worse than that of the Palestinian refugees and the cloths of rice and wheat bags donated to Palestinians are used as shirts and bags for Jordanian children. Jalal Bergess also has depicted other signs of dystopia, the state of fear and confusion that is the result of continuous surveillance by spies and mercenaries of the government who are constantly trying to monitor the people and it recounts its psychological consequences on the characters of the story. Jalal Bergess believes that the only solution to these crises is the dismantling of the corrupt government and the administration of Jordan by just and democracy-loving men and he believes that the only way to achieve this goal is resistance and perseverance against the oppression of rulers, But from the perspective of mental disorders caused by the bad state of society, he calls people to adopt humane and moral ideals.
Key words: Modern novel, dystopia, Jalal Bergees, Defater al-Waraq.
دیستوپیا و نمود آن در رمان «دفاتر الوراق» اثر جلال برجس
مجتبی قنبری مزیدی
ادبیات پلید شهر (Dystopia)، ادبیات جامعه ای خیالی و فاسد است که از خیر و خوبی تهی گشته و شر مطلق بر آن حاکم است. از برجسته ترین ویژگی های آن می توان به ویرانی، قتل، ظلم، فقر و بیماری اشاره کرد. این گونة ادبی پس از آنکه زندگی مناسب و شایستهای برای نویسندگان در واقعیت حاصل نشد، در قالب دنیایی خیالی در آثارشان ظاهر شده است. ادبیات عرب نیز از این گونه ادبی خالی نیست، شاعران و نویسندگان عرب در آثار شعری و متون ادبی خود به این مفهوم توجه داشتهاند. جلال برجس رماننویس اردنی و نویسنده رمان «دفاتر الوراق» از جمله نویسندگانی است که در رمان خود شهر خیالی را به تصویر می کشد که وقایع آن پیرامون قتل، ویرانی و فساد می چرخد. این امر نتیجۀ واقعیتهای تلخ جامعه اردن و شکاف طبقاتی موجود در آن و همچنین درگیریهای مداوم با اشغالگران اسرائیلی است که کشورهای عربی را به سمت ناآرامی و هرج و مرج سوق داده است. پژوهش پیشرو کوشیده است به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی به بررسی مفاهیم دیستوپیا مانند فقر، آوارگی، محرومیت، فساد گسترده حکومتی، ظلم و ستم و نمود این مفاهیم در رمان دفاتر الوراق مورد بررسی قرار دهد. بررسیها نشان میدهد شخصیتهای موجود در رمان دچار ناهنجاریهای اخلاقی و تضادهای شخصیتی هستند که از پیامدهای پلید شهر است و همچنین موضوعهای پنهان اجتماعی مانند زندگی سرخوردگان، بیخانمانها و آوارگان در مرکز توجه نویسنده قرار داشته است. جلال برجس به عنوان یک نویسندۀ متعهد راه رسیدن به سعادت را برچیده شدن حاکمیت فاسد و ظهور حاکمیتی عادل بر میشمارد که قانون و عدالت را در جامعه اجرا کند.
کلیدواژهها: رمان معاصر، دیستوپیا، جلال برجس، دفاتر الوراق.
 - دکترای زبان و ادبیات عربی، دانشگاه یزد ،یزد، ایران. firstname.lastname@example.org
تاریخ دریافت: 2/12/1401، تاریخ پذیرش: 05/05/1402