عنوان المقالة [English]
The Issue of this article is to examine the relationship between reason and revelation from the perspective of Twelver Shi’a and Isma’ili Shi’a schools of thought. Dealing with the relationship between reason and revelation and the realm of all of them can be investigated in different ways. Sometimes philosophy and science are considered two products of human wisdom and their relationship with religion or divine revelation is examined. Occasionally, the tendency to reason in proving religious beliefs is opposed to the textual trend. This is true for both self-founded and holy reasons. In addition to the aforementioned points, the relationship between reason and faith is intermittently discussed. Examining each of the above topics requires measuring the ratio between reason and revelation.
Indeed, the relationship between reason and religion can be examined in the form of four perspectives: conflict, differentiation, integration, and intersection.
In regard to the conflict, the relationship between the two domains of reason and religion is divergent and opposition, and thus reason and religion are irreconcilable. The result of this confrontation is emphasizing the role of reason in guiding and managing human life and leaving aside the role of religion in this field.
From the perspective of differentiation, the relationship between the two domains of reason and religion is different and it is believed that there is no real conflict between reason and religion; each of them answers completely different questions. Religion and reason are each valid in their own defined area, and we should not measure religion by the standard of reason and vice versa. Religion and reason have no right to interfere in each other's affairs, they must be completely distinguished from each other. Reason and religion are completely independent ways to know reality, so it makes no sense to be in conflict with each other. This approach considers the achievements of reason as completely human knowledge and unrelated to religion, draws a clear line between "religious knowledge" and "human knowledge", and places reason outside the boundaries of religion. The view of integration believes in the integration of reason and religion and tries to combine reason and faith to avoid conflict.
Without respecting the differences between reason and religion, this view weaves them into a single fabric, so that they disappear into each other so much that it becomes impossible to distinguish them from each other. Believers in this approach, contemplate that all the natural, mathematical, and human sciences can be extracted by thinking in the verses of the Quran.
The intersectional perspective believes in the mutual influence and harmony between religion and reason. This perspective accepts that reason and religion are logically and linguistically distinct, but in the real world, they cannot be easily distinguished from each other.
This above-mentioned approach follows a free discussion between scientists and theologians. The word "confluence" requires that reason and religion come together, without necessarily merging. This viewpoint prohibits integration and separation, insists on maintaining differences, and honors connection.
The main question of this research is whether the relationship between reason and revelation in Twelver Shi’a and Isma’ili Shi’a Islamic schools of thought is based on which one of the views of conflict, differentiation, integration, and intersection. Is this ratio a type of integration, and reason and revelation are two sources of religious knowledge? Or is the understanding of reason beyond the scope of religious knowledge and in conflict with it? Have Twelver and Isma’ili Shiites tried to harmonize and reconcile reason and revelation, or have they emphasized one of them as a source of knowledge?
The hypothesis of the research is based on the fact that based on the Twelver Shi’a and Isma’ili Shi’a schools of thought, reason, and revelation have a mutual relationship.
Twelver Shi’a jurisprudence and theology have undergone many changes in their historical course, and have presented different views. In the era of legislation and the presence of Imams, all the rules and orders of Islam were compiled and developed with the revelation of divine verses and the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH), and the traditions of the infallible Imams (PBUH).
In the present age, two different viewpoints, Rationalist and Textualist have gradually been created in the way and extent of applying reason in religious education The relationship between reason and religion among rationalists and most theologians and some Shi’a jurists, from the fourth century to today, is based on the integration of reason and revelation, and their efforts have been to harmonize reason and revelation. However, the Textualists believe in the distinction between reason and revelation and choose revealed knowledge from the two domains of reason and revelation (religion).
According to Isma’ili theologians, reason alone is not enough to bring a person to truth and salvation, and without relying on the teachings of the prophets and revelation, religious knowledge is not acquired and completed. They further believe that even the Prophet was not satisfied with reasoning alone in deriving the rules and regulations of religion. Therefore, according to Isma’ili scholars, the relationship between reason and revelation is based on the view of integration.
الكلمات الرئيسية [English]
نسبت عقل و وحی از منظر شیعه امامیه و اسماعیلیه
این مقاله، تلاش دارد نسبت عقل و وحی را از دیدگاه مذاهب شیعه امامیه و اسماعیلیه مورد بررسی قرار دهد. پرداختن به رابطه میان عقل و وحی و قلمرو هر یك از آن ها به صورتهای گوناگون قابل ارزیابی است. معمولا، نسبت عقل و دین در قالب چهار دیدگاه؛ تعارض، تمایز، تلفیق و تلاقی مورد بررسی قرار می گیرد. این پژوهش تلاش می کند تا به این پرسش پاسخ دهد که رابطه میان عقل و وحی براساس چهار دیدگاه فوق چه نسبتی را برقرار می سازد. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد که نسبت میان عقل و وحی در نزد شیعه امامیه و اسماعلیه در حوزه دیدگاه تلاقی می گنجد. از این رو، برای اجتناب از تعارض تلاش می کنند عقل و ایمان را به هم بیامیزد، به طوری که تمایز آنها از یکدیگر ناممکن گردد.
کلیدواژهها: عقل، وحی، شیعه، امامیه، اسماعیلیه.