نوع المستند : علمی ـ پژوهشی
1 .أستاذ مساعد في قسم تاریخ الاسلامی، اکادیمیه العلوم الإنسانية والدراسات الثقافية ، طهران، ایران
2 ماجستر تاریخ ایران الاسلامی، قسم التربية والعلوم الإنسانية ، جامعة أمير كبير للتكنولوجيا، طهران،ایران
عنوان المقالة [English]
One of the main topics of religious sociology is the study of the relationship between religion and power structure. In Iranian society, religion is located in a complex network of political, social, cultural and economic interests and interests. Examining religious discourses in Iran will help us gain a more accurate understanding of the formation of the power structure. With the spread of modernism in Iranian society, religious authoritarianism was challenged by different groups of society. This challenge was the result of the confrontation of the traditional system with some of the results and effects of modernity. In the early years of the 13th Hijri/19th century, at the same time as the end of the conflicts between the Usulites and the Akhbarites and the victory of the Usulites, a new stream of Shiism appeared called the Shaykhiya School. After centuries, Sheikh Ahmad Ahsai revived the issue of "special proxy" once again. And with the plan of "Khase proxy" he influenced many intellectual, religious and political developments in the history of contemporary Iran. He believed that Khas proxies have always existed and the Shiites were deprived of knowing them. Batani, from the organization of representation and representation, turned to the Kamel Shia plan, which first proposed the existence of a special representation during the time of Kabri's absence, contrary to the consensus of Shia scholars, and changed it from a legal and representation case to a theological and religious debate under the theory of Kamel Shia and the fourth pillar. The principles of the religion of promotion. And secondly, he negated the jurisprudence organization or public proxy of the Usuli mujtahids with the proposal of special proxy. What the Muslim sages and mystics consider as a perfect human being in the world of development and legislation, this position has been transferred to the Shia perfection in the Shaykhiya school. The most perfect human being created after the Imam, and he is the one in whom the secrets and divine teachings were revealed to the Imam. He is an outward and inward mentor and the complete embodiment of the Imam in the eyes of the Shiites. In the form of a concept such as complete Shia, he considered it to be the intermediary between the Imam and the people, which is a higher order than the mediation of narration and reference to scholars. Meanwhile, in the history of Shiism, we see that some of the lawyers of the Shia imams even deviated and were condemned by the imams, and the imams and Shiites considered the position of lawyers to be nothing but a lawyer. Complete Shia can be seen as a distortion of the theory of representation in the history of Shiism, which is the result of an esoteric interpretation of religion that leads Islam to ideologicalize religion and authoritarianism in religion in the field of politics. Our assumption in this research is that the full Shia theory is a type of authoritarianism or authoritarianism; which is more related to the idea of Islamic fundamentalism and religious authoritarianism. When we talk about the theory of government in the opinions of Sheikh Ahmad Ahsaei, it does not mean that he has a coherent theory about government. to measure and study the government's The deduction of the components of the complete Shia theory about government shows that these components are closer to the theory of absolute government (religious authoritarianism) than the theory of constitutional government. The person who holds this spiritual position does not consider himself obliged to be accountable to other religious scholars. He has a decisive role in the structure of religious power as the main element of this structure in the movement of political, social, cultural and economic developments of the society. The full Shiite theory, the relationship with religious scholars and religious people is a top-down and authoritarian relationship, where the values and attitudes are strongly contradictory and in conflict with innovation. That is why the ruling religious values are authoritarian and in the background A religious society consisting of scholars and religious people is not formed, but it is imposed on the religious society from above and there is no escape but to accept them. If the full Shiite theory in political sociology is used as the basis of practice, basically the people do not have a role in the legitimacy of the political system. The only duty of the people is to fulfill their duty and obey the Islamic ruler. On the other hand, according to the theory of agency, the legitimacy of the Islamic system is from the people of Sari. And it is flowing and people have rights in determining their own destiny. The Islamic ruler in such a system must be busy with the responsibility that has been entrusted to him by the people, and he must be responsible and accountable to the people. From the point of view of epistemology, the claim of the complete Shiite theory is that it claims the final explanation of the understanding of religion among religious scholars, this is the exclusivism in the understanding of religion, which is fundamentally opposed to religious pluralism, and by claiming to have such a capacity, it separates itself from any kind of religious pluralism. An experience and understanding of religion is independent. In this regard, full Shia can be considered as a form of reproduction of authoritarianism in the religious structure of Iran. By gathering religious power, it becomes a dominant personality over religious scholars, and in this way, it has no other purpose than to preserve And it does not stabilize its position and has absolute control over all the affairs of the religious society and as the only religious authority has control over all religious affairs and has no obligations and responsibilities in front of the religious scholars. which is established by political and religious repression and rejection of opponents. The present article, which examines the main essence of Sheikh Ahmad Ahsaei's thinking, is based on the following question: What process has the concept of proxy, especially in the form of Shia theory, gone through in emotional opinions? In response to the above question, this article seeks to explain this theory: With an esoteric interpretation of special proxy and passing the legal and representative meaning of Nawab Shia imams on one hand and negating public proxy of usul mujtahids on the other hand, Sheikh Ahmad Ahsaei has turned to the theory of Kamel Shia and Bab Imam. The achievement of this research is that, for the first time, the main pillars of Shaikhiyah teachings under the headings: God, Prophet, Imam and Shia, in the works of Sheikh Ahm
الكلمات الرئيسية [English]
نیابت خاصه و اقتدارگرایی دینی در گفتمان شیخ احمد احسایی
سيد محمد رحيم ربانی زاده 
لطف الله لطفی
بررسی رابطه میان دین و ساختار قدرت یکی از موضوعات اصلی جامعه شناسی دینی است. در جامعه ایرانی، دین در درون شبکه پیچیده ای از علائق و منافع سیاسی ،اجتماعی،فرهنگی و اقتصادی قرار دارد. بررسی گفتمان های دینی در ایران به ما کمک خواهد کرد تا شناخت دقیق تری را از شکل گیری ساختار قدرت به دست آوریم. با گسترش نوگرایی در جامعه ایرانی، اقتدارگرایی دینی از سوی گروه های مختلف جامعه به چالش کشیده شد. این چالش حاصل رویارویی نظام سنتی با پاره ای از نتایج و آثار و لوازم نوگرایی بود. در سال های آغازین قرن سیزدهم هجری/ نوزدهم میلادی مکتب شیخیه تحت تاثیر افکار و آرای شیخ احمد احسایی پا به عرصه ظهور نهاد که با طرح «نیابت خاصه» بسیاری از تحولات فکری، دینی، سیاسی در تاریخ ایران معاصر را تحت تاثیر خود قرار داد. نوشتار حاضر که بررسی بن مایه اصلی تفکر شیخ احمد احسایی را مد نظر دارد در پی پاسخ به این پرسش است که مفهوم نیابت خاصه در قالب نظریه شیعه کامل در آراء احسایی چه فرایندی را طی کرده است؟ شیخ احمد احسایی با تفسیری باطنی از نیابت خاصه و عبوراز معنای حقوقی و وکالتی نواب ائمه شیعه از یک سوی و نفی نیابت عامه مجتهدین اصولی از سوی دیگر،به طرح نظریه شیعه کامل و باب امام رو آورده است. دستاورد این پژوهش این است که برای نخستین بار ارکان اصلی تعالیم شیخیه تحت عناوین «خدا، پیامبر، امام و شیعه» در آثار شیخ احمد احسایی مطرح شده است و تاکید بر مقام شیعه کامل به منزله ابواب ایمان و معرفت، در آثار او به وضوح بیان شده است.
کلید واژهها: وکالت، نیابت خاصه، نیابت عامه، مجتهدان اصولی، شیعه کامل، اقتدارگرایی.
. استادیار گروه تاریخ اسلام پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی، تهران، ایران (نویسنده مسئول) firstname.lastname@example.org
. کارشناس ارشد تاریخ ایران اسلامی، گروه تربیت و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه صنعتی امیر کبیر، تهران، ایران email@example.com