عنوان المقالة [English]
The Noble Qur’an is the Book of God Almighty and an eternal miracle of His Messenger Muhammad, the valuable book whose wonders have been studied by scholars through the ages, including Abdul Qaher Al-Jurjani, who is well known to the people of merit and literature. Abd al-Qaher lived in the Gorgan region at the beginning of the fifth century, and he is the author of the " theory of Nazm" that he received was not integrated from his predecessor, starting with Sibawayh, so he established its origins until the theory was completed and attributed to him. Abd al-Qahir al-Jurjani percieves the literary miracle of the Holy Qur’an in its wonderful coherence and calls it theory of Nazm (coherence), which has long been the focus of the attention of scholars and writers, which is that the vocabulary in the holy book is very consistent with each other verbally, as we could not change it with a word close to its meaning (synonyms), and it has wonderful secrets in definite, indefinite, preposing and postposing, then the words in close association with the meaning. The vocabulary coalition (juxtaposition) forms varied (diverse) short or long sentences that are in a complete cohesion with each other verbally, and in complete agreement (harmony, compromise) with the meaning and with full observance of the rules of grammar and the foundations of the rhetorics. Aesthetics of the form and meaning is in the service of the context of the noble verse, and each of these components is called by Al-Jurjani the theory of Nazm.
We chose a part of Surat Taha because it is a Meccan Surah, and the smell of eloquence in these Surahs is stronger and wiser. Then, after examining the books of Abdul Qaher Al-Jurjani and researchers after him, we did not find a study in the Holy Qur’an and an analysis in it based on the theory of Nazm word for word and sentence by sentence, so the unique theory remained just a theory without a practical application to the clear verses in an application worthy of the majesty of the Holy Book or closer to it. With the help of God Almighty, we try, as much as possible, for the scrutinized practical application of the theory on the extent to which the words are related to each other in pronunciation and meaning, and the harmony of sentences with each other in word and meaning, then focus on the complete consistency between them and the context of three specific verses of Surat Taha in order to show one of the miracles of the Noble Qur’an . The main objective of the article from applying the theory to the specific verses is to reveal the secrets of the Book of God Almighty verbally, and to show the high-end images of it meaning, and to highlight its aesthetics as the words and meanings are in the service of the context of the noble verse. And the questions that we are about to answer are: What is the role of the words of the Noble Qur’an and the good selection of its sentences in finding its wonderful system? What is the role of the meanings and concepts of the Noble Qur’an in tightening its upscale systems? How are the words and meanings of the Noble Qur’an in the service of their eloquent contexts?. Al-Jurjani in theory of Nazm Nevertheless Abdel-Qaher did not exegsis the Holy Qur’an on the basis of his theory, and we did not find another researcher who studied its noble verses a comprehensive practical study in application of Abdel-Qaher’s approach in his theory of Nazm. So, we studied three specific verses from Surat Taha in the light of the theory of Nazm, focusing on showing the coherence of vocabulary and sentences between them in terms of form and meaning. So they were well aligned with the overall context of the noble verses by making use of the descriptive-analytical approach. So we achieved through our analytical study that the words in the noble verses are very accurate by choice in the definite, indefinite, or omission and remembrance, preposing and postposing, as we could not change them with a single word close to their meaning due to a defect that occurs in the coherence of sentences or noble verses in word and meaning. Then the sentences with their various patterns are in complete agreement (harmony, compromise) with each other verbally in the connection and separation and others, then they are in a close objective connection with the meaning, with full observance of the rules of grammar and the pillars of rhetorics, aethetics of form and meaning in the service of the context of the noble verses and their high concepts.
الكلمات الرئيسية [English]
بررسی زیبايیهای لغوى و بلاغى سوره طه در پرتوی نظریه نظم عبدالقاهر جرجانی
(بخش هلاكت فرعون وسپاهیانش [طه: 77 – 79])
محمد ابراهيم خليفه شوشترى
عبدالقاهر جرجانى اعجاز ادبی قرآن کریم را در نظم آن میداند، وآن را نظريه نظم نامگذاری میکند كه از ديرباز نقطه عطف دانشمندان و ادب پژوهان بوده است. نظريه نظم يعنى تمامى الفاظ قرآن در كنار يكديگر بافتى منظم از نظر معنا و لفظ دارند، به طورى كه هيچ لفظى را نمىتوان جايگزين لفظ ديگرى كرد، و از نظر تعريف و تنكير و يا تقديم و تاخير داراى رازهايى بديع هستند. ائتلاف مفردات جملات كوتاه و بلند را تشكيل مىدهند، و اين جملات نيز در انسجام کامل با يكديگر از منظر لفظ و معنا هستند. قواعد نحو در آن كاملا رعايت شده و اركان علم بلاغت در آن کاربردی فراگیر دارد و همه اين زیبايیهای لفظى و معنوى در خدمت سياق آيات مى باشند. عبدالقاهر خود به تفسير قرآن بر اساس نظريه نظم نپرداخته است و پژوهشى جامع در اين زمينه نيافتهايم، پس بر آن شدیم تا آياتى از سوره طه را بر اساس این نظریه و به روش تحلیلی توصیفی مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار دهیم. یافتههای پژوهش این است که الفاظ سوره مبارکه كاملا دقیق و با انسجام لفظى معنايى با یکدیگر هستند، جملات نیز داری نظمی قابل تأمل از لحاظ ارتباط لفظی و انسجام معنوی بوده و بیانگر مفهوم متعالی آیات کریمه هستند. قواعد نحوی کاملا رعایت شده و زیباییهای بلاغی از جمله وصل و فصل و یا تقدیم و تأخیر و... در آن با اسراری دقیق به کار رفته است، و تمامی این اسالیب ارزشمند در خدمت مفهوم کلی و سیاق آيات مبارکه میباشد.
واژگان کلیدی: عبدالقاهر جرجانی، نظریه نظم، سوره طه، زیبايیهای لغوی و بلاغي.
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