عنوان المقالة [English]
Regardless of what mentioned in the religious heritage of the Noble Qur’an and the honorable hadiths about the personality of Imam Ali (A. S.) and his traits, all of which help us to know his great personality and unique characteristics; in Nahj al-Balagha, he presented himself to others and tried to define his personality for them through both explicit and implicit ways. By presenting in an explicit manner, he made use of the pronoun, the noun, and the title; however, via the non-explicit method, he used mechanisms ranging from simile, metaphor, metonymy, and nickname, which can be considered as one of the most important pillars of presentation on the part of the Imam in Nahj al-Balagha.
The truth is that Imam Ali (A.S.) as much as he was keen on conveying the relevant concepts, he was also concerned with his method in this process. He is the owner of linguistic wit as he delivers the relevant concepts in his correct speech style and with contemplation and patience. In Nahj al-Balagha, he presented himself to others with multiple mechanisms and technical strategies ranging from simile, metaphor, metonymy and nickname. In fact, by employing such strategies, he added to his text a suggestive dimension and gave it distinction and uniqueness. In light of the status of the forms of self-presentation in Nahj al-Balagha and since this issue is of great importance in comprehending the text, this study deals with its descriptive analytical approach, the mechanisms that the Imam employed in presenting himself and treats the texts that he introduced himself with his tongue to others.
In light of the importance of knowing the Imam through his words and understanding that knowing a person through his words is one of the most accurate ways to reach his personality, this study deals with its descriptive and analytical approach the types of strategies that the speaker employed when he wanted to introduce himself to others in an indirect way in the belief that the Imam is the eloquent who chooses the style. The grammatical and rhetorician appropriate to the context or the place and the situation and puts his words in the situation required by the meaning that he wants and the purpose that leads, so studying the mechanisms used in presenting the soul and clarifying the locations of their employment in Nahj al-Balagha and approaching the subject in this book improves understanding of the recipient and helps him to comprehend the text and reveal new linguistic circumstances. To obtain the intended purpose, we treat all the sermons, messages, and wisdom found in Nahj al-Balagha from this perspective. The study attempts to answer the two questions:
How did the Imam (peace be upon him) diversify the mechanisms of self-presentation?
Which mechanism affected the psyche of the reader more than the other mechanisms and why?
It is inferred that besides his interest in the direct method of presenting himself, he focused special attention on the indirect method and was particularly aware to benefit from any mechanism in any context, as the context played a pivotal role in choosing the type of mechanism.
Based on all of the above, it can be concluded that Imam Ali (A.S.), although in the process of presenting oneself to others benefited from conscience and explicit knowledge, yet he was not satisfied with both of them. The pillars of presentation on the part of the Imam in Nahj al-Balagha, and by employing these strategies, he diversified in his graphic style, increased the vitality and literariness of the text, and kept it away from using the special mechanism.
And the study leads us to conclude that the patterns of the mechanisms employed in the presentation process differ according to the place, the addressee, and the subject, so it becomes acceptable, and perhaps even a given, that the author of the text has mastered the use of mechanisms, not only for verbal decoration, but to endow his style with timeless art and to enjoy a distinct linguistic flair. ; Taking advantage of graphical strategies allowed the speaker to activate the recipient’s imagination and strengthen the relationship between the text and the recipients, and to diversify the style of the message he wanted to deliver to the reader, and increase the expressive energy in clarifying the meaning, especially in the embodiment of extractive mental concepts; Benefiting from the studied mechanisms in Nahj al-Balaghah ended in bringing the meanings closer to the awareness of the recipient and increased their clarity and determination.
Close reading and careful standing at the texts that came between the two covers of Nahj al-Balagha made it possible for us that the Imam in the presentation process tends to indirect expression, as we do not deviate from the path of truth if we say: employing indirect expression is one of the likely and preferred method of the Imam (A.S.(.
Considering the attributes and personalities employed by the Imam for himself in Nahj al-Balagha, it can be found that he desires the process of presenting himself in a lot of ways to embody rational and abstract concepts; This trend presents the “similarity” with its two types: the simple analogy and the advanced analogy (metaphor). It is a pivotal mechanism affecting the reader’s psyche in presenting oneself, and it has a special effectiveness in accepting the intended meaning and determining it for the recipient.
الكلمات الرئيسية [English]
بررسی راهبردهای هنریِ خودمعرفی در نهج البلاغه
علی نجفی ایوکی
حقیقت آن است که امام علی (ع) به همان اندازه که به چگونگی نقل مفاهیم مورد نظر حساسیت نشان داده، در فرایند انتقال به سبک بیانی خود نیز توجه ویژه ورزیده است؛ او دارای ظرافت بیانی است که مفاهیم مورد نظر خویش را با پیشاندیشی و ژرفنگری بالا در سبکی کاملاً مستحکم به مخاطب القا میکند. بررسی القاگر این است که حضرت با ابزارها و استراتژیهای مختلف هنری از جمله تشبیه، استعاره، کنایه و کُنیه، از زبان خود، خویشتن را به دیگران معرفی میکند و از رهگذر همان استراتژیها، بُعد القایی به متن خود میبخشد و آن را به صورت شاخص و متمیز فرادید مخاطب قرار میدهد. در پرتو جایگاه گونههای خودمعرفی در نهج البلاغه، و از آن روی که این موضوع در فهم متن بسیار مهم و کارساز است، پژوهش پیش روی بر آن است تا با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، استراتژیهای خودمعرفی در نهج البلاغه را شناسایی، دستهبندی و تحلیل نماید و از آن منظر به تحلیل متنهایی بپردازد که آن استراتژی در آنها به کار بسته شده است. چنین استنباط میشود که حضرت در فرایند خودمعرفی، بیان غیر مستقیم را بر بیان مستقيم ترجیح داده است. دیگر اینکه با پیشاندیشی بالا میدانسته کدام استراتژی را در کدام سیاق دخالت دهد. بر این اساس میتوان گفت که سیاق، نقشی کلیدی در گزینش نوع استراتژی داشته است.
کلیدواژهها: امام علی (ع)، نهج البلاغه، خودمعرفی، انتزاع، تشبیه، استعاره، عینیتگرایی.
 - دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات عربی، دانشکده ادبیات و زبان های خارجی، دانشگاه کاشان، اصفهان، ایران (نویسنده مسئول)
 - دانشجوی دکتری زبان و ادبیات عربی، دانشکده ادبیات و زبان های خارجی، دانشگاه کاشان، اصفهان، ایران