عنوان المقالة [English]
The use of Sufi discourse is considered one of the most important expressive patterns in the contemporary Arabic poem in order to break the monotony of familiar communicative patterns. Contemporary poets found in it new spiritual and intellectual spaces to enrich their modernist poetic experience and encapsulate it with mystical symbols. And the poet, when he tends to Sufism, he aims to transcend the feeling of narrow vision that is the problem of contemporary man, and to withdraw from this apparent existence by contemplation and departing from the ordinary until he reaches the truth, and feels complete liberation from all restrictions that make man feel his servitude. Sufi poetry is a literary experience with artistic features that elevates the soul above spiritual horizons and draws closer to the divine self. Some contemporary poets walk cognitive paths to break free from the dominant reality and obtain their artistic and existential desire. This tendency has seeped into the creativity of female poets, including Nabila Al-Khatib, the contemporary Jordanian poet. Nabila Al-Khatib, the contemporary Jordanian poet, is one of those poets who hints the reader by reading her book “She is Jerusalem” shows Sufi spaces that try, through some of her poems, to express her conscience and reveal the dimensions of her mystical experience. It goes without saying that what is meant by Sufism in Nabila Al-Khatib’s poetry is not intellectual mysticism in which principles or sayings aim at building a way or a doctrine of life, so that the reader does not think that we are in front of poetry similar to the products of the pioneers of Sufism, but rather it is a group of emotional and spiritual manifestations in which love overlaps. The divine, glorification of the divine essence, asceticism from this world, and the tendency to unite with the absolute self. How beautiful it is to hear the quality of Sufism in Nabila’s poetry from the poet herself, who answered in a press interview a question about the Sufi trend in her poetry, saying: “Sufism is of two types… Sufism of passion and spirit, Sufism of belief and traditional terminology… I am of the first type consistent with my spiritual nature. Conflict to the top with divine love and good example of the master of creation. After this clarification, it appears to us that the mystical discourse of Nabila al-Khatib is not based on philosophical foundations, but rather it is an automatic flow emanating from the spiritual nature of the poetess, and from the mystical awareness inherent in herself. How beautiful it is for the mystical experience to be crowded with mystical radiances without its owner wearing a mystical robe; Because then it will be a true human experience. From this point of view, this research paper, with its descriptive and analytical approach, attempts to elucidate that Sufi experience in the poetry of Nabila Al-Khatib by monitoring the Sufi connotations and references in the book “She is Al-Quds” until you see:
What are the most frequently mentioned mystical and spiritual contents in “She is Jerusalem”?
To what extent was she able to represent the Sufi phenomenon to enrich her poetic experience? How did you benefit from it?
Therefore, I approach the traditional Sufi trend spiritually and leave it traditionally.” This research aims, with its descriptive and analytical approach, to study the mechanisms of forming the Sufi text and its manifestations in Al-Khatib's poetry in order to reveal the Sufi idea and its themes. Through the analysis of the poems of the is Al-Quds Poetry Court the study reached some results, the most important of which are: Nabila Al-Khatib is a poet with a Sufi tendency, and this tendency was manifested in the book, Jerusalem, especially her poems, by seizing Sufi ideas and some Sufi terms. We noticed after reading and meditating on her poetry that she was overwhelmed with spiritual manifestations. We lived through studying this book of expressions and images that translated the divine love and the love of His Messenger, and that was through hope and supplication in a language of sincere conscience and faith. In her Sufi spin, the poet opposed the approach of Al-Busiri and Ahmed Shoqi, and succeeded in that opposition with the funny meanings that she added to her poems. It also appeared that the mystical experience of Nabila Al-Khatib was not a lexical experience, but a spiritual experience that tended towards the upper and imbued with spiritual values and emotionally mixed with the Sufi consciousness open to the highest and purest, which was clearly evident in her spiritual alienation. And her permanent nostalgia for the connection and encounter with the absolute Existence of God Almighty. This sublime experience was manifested in divine and prophetic love, avoidance of earthly filth and longing to dissolve into the absolute self.
الكلمات الرئيسية [English]
جلوههای تصوف و فروغ معنویت در شعر نبیله الخطیب
مطالعه موردی دیوان هی القدس
جمال طالبی قرهقشلاقی، استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات عرب دانشگاه فرهنگیان، ارومیه ـ ایران (نویسنده مسئول)
أسماء علجيه بوشایب، دکتری زبان و ادبیات عرب، دانشگاه ابوالقاسم سعدالله ـ الجزائر
شعر صوفیانه تجربهاي ادبي با مؤلفههاي هنری است که روح انسان را به افقهاي بلند معنوي رهنمون ميسازد. برخي از شاعران معاصر براي رهايي از سلطه اوضاع حاکم بر زندگي و رسيدن به خواستههاي ادبي و هستيشناختي خود در حوزههاي معرفتي قدم ميگذارند. آثار ادبي برخي از زنان شاعره عرب همچون نبيله الخطيب شاعر معاصر اردني شاهد يک تجربهي صوفيانه بوده است. به گونهاي که خواننده رگههايي از تصوف را مشاهده ميکند که فلسفه و نوع نگاه او به عالم هستي را انعکاس ميدهد. نشانههای تجربه صوفیان در دیوان هی القدس نمود یافته و خطیب، اندیشه دینی و معنویتگرایی خود را به تصویر کشیده است. بر این اساس، پژوهش حاضر با روش توصیفیـ تحلیلی به بررسی جلوههای تصوف، موضوعات و نمادهای آن در شعر شاعر پرداخته است. از مهمترین یافتههای پژوهش میتوان به این امر اشاره نمود که نبیله الخطیب شاعری با گرایشات صوفیانه است و این مقوله در دیوان هی القدس نمود یافته، و فروغ معنویت بر آن غالب گشته است. او محبت الهی و عشق به پیامبر (ص) را با بیانی زیبا و هنرمندانه به تصویر کشیده است که نشان از وجدان صادق او دارد. تجربه صوفیانه نبیله تنها جنبهی کاربرد واژگان صوفی نبوده است، بلکه تجربهای آکنده از ارزشهای دینی و معنوی، آمیخته با فهم صحیح تصوف، و با نگاه به عوالم فرا زمینی بوده است. این رویکرد در غربت روحی و شوق دائم به وصال الهی نمود یافته است.
کلیدواژهها: شعر معاصر، تصوف، نبیله الخطیب، دیوان هی القدس