عنوان المقالة [English]
Investigation of literature and literary works, especially in the field of criticism is associated with interdisciplinary research and specifically with the science of sociology; this is due to the importance of literature as a reflector of social problems. Sociological literature investigations can be modified cultural structure of society, solve its problems and transform it in various fields. On the other hand we see that the novel from some time ago, with a prominent place in the expression of social issues, it is distinguished from other literary knowledge and techniques. Subsequently, the Islamic novel is a literary genre that is expressing the Muslim community issues; because it cannot be around this literature from addressing important social issues of the nations. For this reason the Islamic literature is a committed, indicative and aware literature of the evolution of human societies. Thus, the Islamic novel addressed the sustainability issue, and figured the pains of oppressed that live under the yoke of colonialism. Naguib al-Kilani is a pioneer of the contemporary Islamic novel, he is show special attention to the female characters in his novels, especially the "A’dhra’ Djakarta" novel, and as a Muslim novelist, most examples of female characters in the novel used to showing his emphasis on the role and attitude of women in the subject of resistance. This article is addressed the positive aspects of woman character in the "A’dhra’ Djakarta" novel with a descriptive and analytical method and According to a sociological analysis of the novel, and indicates that Naguib al-Kilani focuses on three aspects of the woman that is champion, stable and martyr woman, pictured a sublime status of Muslim women to encourage people of colonized countries to face the enemy.
The field of post-colonial theory relates to a specific historical period that followed the demise of colonialism, or the period that followed the political independence obtained by countries that were under foreign colonialism. This theory uses a variety of modern critical approaches, including the renaissance of cultural studies and feminist studies. It benefits from all critical approaches, especially post-structuralism and postmodernism. The term post-colonialism came with the publication of Edward Said's Orientalism book, and the French writer Madame de Stael was the first to point out the importance of the relationship between literature and society, and between literature and politics. The issue of ideology is another topic that Goldman refers to in his research on the sociology of literature, as he sees that the creator of literary works is not only their author, but its creator is the ideology belonging to a particular social class.
In this article, our attention has focused on the two topics related to the novel The A’dhra’jakarta, while the first topic is related to the study of the features of the positive characters in the novel, including the heroine of the novel "Fatima", and her political and revolutionary activities and other feminist personalities participating in this jihad, and to shed light on the features of these novelists, We analyze their most important social and political activities, which continue their struggle until the last moment of life to achieve complete freedom for their homeland and people. The second topic concerns the effects of post-colonialism
Al-Kilani was interested in the issue of resistance, as it is a distinguished literature, and he took care in the novel of The A’dhra’jakarta from both sides, the first of which is drawing the features of feminist personalities, and focusing on the important position of women in Islamic society, which is the participation of women in the most important social issues and in the fate of her homeland and her future, and Islamic literature confirms it in various areas of peoples' lives. The second is to express the effects of communist colonialism on the different levels of Indonesian society. In his novel, Al-Kilani was concerned with the issue of the complete equality of women and men, their social and political rights, the nature of communism, its ideological goals, and its opportunist policies that oppose Islamic teachings. On the other hand, he used the figure of Fatima, as a militant woman whose Islamic features the author has employed to express his beliefs about The functions of women in their social life, and to emphasize the extent of their importance in the resistance and steadfastness in the face of manifestations of colonialism and injustice. Al-Kilani has benefited from the method of preaching and guidance in the sayings of this female character, and he has used her Islamic features, and painted them in his novels, to emphasize the role of women in global revolutions, and he wanted to say that the role of women in the resistance movement is no less than that of men. According to his Islamic ideology and his revolutionary beliefs, he wanted, through the features of these positive personalities, to point out two things: First: that revolutions around the world are proceeding on one line, which is the union of the different classes of peoples. And secondly: that women can do great things, and help men to continue the path towards freedom and lofty goals
الكلمات الرئيسية [English]
جلوههای پسااستعماری شخصیتهای مثبت زن
در رمان «عذرا جاکارتا» نجیب الکیلانی
محمدجواد پورعابد **، ناصر زارع ***، رسول بلاوي ****
بررسیهای جامعهشناختی ادبیات میتواند ساختار فرهنگی جامعه را اصلاح و مشکلات آن را حل کرده و آن را در زمینههای مختلف دگرگون سازد. از سویی دیگر ملاحظه میکنیم که رمان با داشتن جایگاه بارزی در بیان موضوعات اجتماعی، از سایر دانشها و فنون ادبی متمایز شده است. رمان اسلامی نیز یکی از انواع ادبی است که به بیان موضوعات جامعه اسلامی همت گماشته است؛ زیرا نمیتوان این ادبیات را از پرداختن به موضوعات اجتماعی مهم ملتها به دور داشت. بنابراین، رمان اسلامی به موضوع پایداری پرداخت و دردهای مردم ستمدیدهای که زیر یوغ استعمار زندگی میکنند را به تصویر کشید. نجیب الکیلانی پیشگام رمان معاصر اسلامی، به شخصیت زن در رمانهایش و به ویژه رمان عذراء جاکرتا توجه ویژهای نشان داده است و به عنوان یک رماننویس اسلامی، أغلب نمونههای شخصیت زن را در رمانهایش بهکار برده است تا با خوانشی تأکیدآمیز به بیان نقش زن و موضع وی در قبال موضوع مقاومت بپردازد. این جستار با روشی توصیفی – تحلیلی و با توجه به تحلیل جامعهشناختی رمان، به بررسی جلوههای استعمار و پایداری بر ویژگیهای مثبت شخصیت زن در رمان عذراء جاکارتا پرداخته و بیانگر این است که نجیب الکیلانی با تمرکز بر سه نمونه از جلوههای شخصیت زنِ مبارز، پایدار و شهید، جایگاهی والا از زن مسلمان را به منظور تشویق مردم کشورهای استعمار شده در رویارویی با دشمن به تصویر کشیده است.
کلید واژهها: بررسی جامعهشناختی،رمان اسلامی، پسااستعمار، ادبیات پایداری، زن، نجیب الکیلانی، عذراء جاکرتا.
** محمدجواد پورعابد، دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات عربی، دانشگاه خلیج فارس، بوشهر، إيران (نویسندۀ مسئول) firstname.lastname@example.org
*** ناصر زارع، دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات عربی، دانشگاه خلیج فارس، بوشهر، إيران email@example.com
**** رسول بلاوي، دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات عربی، دانشگاه خلیج فارس، بوشهر، إيران firstname.lastname@example.org