الحلول المقترحة للقضية الفلسطينية دراسة مقارنة لدور إيران والمنظمات الدولية

نوع المستند : علمی ـ پژوهشی

المؤلفون

1 دکتوراه في العلوم السياسية، عضو هيئة التدريس بقسم کلیة المعارف الإسلامية، جامعة آزاد الإسلامية، کرج، إيران،(

2 أستاذ اللغة العربية والفکر الإسلامي، جامعة الإمام الأوزاعي، بیروت، لبنان

10.30465/afg.2022.6686

المستخلص

فلسطين هي القضيّة الأهمّ في العالم الإسلامي، فهي مرکز الحضارة الإسلاميّة، وکانت -ولا تزال- متعلّقةً بجميع المسلمين، وهذا ما تظهر أهمّيته اليوم في ظهور مفاهيم من قبيل الوحدة والمقاومة، والتي تؤدّي بدورها إلى نوعٍ من التلاقي في العالم الإسلامي على الصعد الجديدة ثقافيًّا، اجتماعيًّا، وسياسيًّا. لقد شدّت القضيّة الفلسطينيّة من البداية أنظار العالم إليها، وکان لإيران في التعامل مع هذه القضيّة ومع تأسيس الکيان الإسرائيلي غير الشرعي مرحلتان مختلفتان: تتمثّل الأولى منهما بما قبل وقوع الثورة الإسلاميّة، أي بزمن النظام الشاهنشاهي البهلوي، فيما تشکّل الثانية مرحلة ما بعد الثورة الإسلاميّة، أي حکومة الجمهوريّة الإسلاميّة. وهذا ملحوظٌ في تعامل إيران ومواقفها في المنظّمات الدوليّة أثناء تلک المرحلتين.ومع التسليم بدور المنظّمات الدوليّة في تأسيس الکيان الإسرائيلي ومنحه المشروعيّة، والجهود الحثيثة لحلّ هذه القضيّة منذ أکثر من 70 سنة، يحمل کاتب هذه السطور التساؤل التالي: کيف کان اقتراح إيران أمام المنظّمات الدوليّة لحلّ القضيّة الفلسطينيّة؟وفي سبيل التعرّف أکثر على هذا الموضوع ولتبيينه من زاوية معرفيّة، اعتمد الکاتب على المنهج التوصيفي-التحليلي ليصل إلى جملةٍ من النتائج؛ منها: عدم فعالية ما تم طرحه في المنظّمات الدوليّة، ومن جملتها منظّمة الأمم المتّحدة، في حلّ القضيّة الفلسطينيّة حتى الآن.وفي المقابل نجد الحلّ الذي طرحته الجمهوريّة الإسلامية الإيرانية (مع تأکيدها على الاستفتاء الفلسطيني الداخلي)، حيث لم يحظَ حتى هذه اللحظة بالتأييد من قبل المنظّمات الدوليّة حتى يتمّ تقييمه وتوصيفه، ومن جهةٍ أخرى، الحکومة في إيران، بصفتها ممثلة لنظام الجمهورية الإسلامية، لم تتابعه وتطالب به في منظّمة الأمم المتّحدة بشکلٍ مستمرّ.

الكلمات الرئيسية


عنوان المقالة [English]

Proposed solutions to the Palestinian issue A comparative study of the role of Iran and international organizations

المؤلفون [English]

  • Behzad Daneshfar 1
  • Nayef Maarouf 2
1 Phd in Political Science and Faculty Member in Department of Islamic Education, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Alborz, Iran,
2 Professor of Arabic Language and Islamic Thought, Imam Ouzai University, Beirut, Lebanon,
المستخلص [English]

Palestine has interwoven with Islamic civilization. It is the most important issue of the world of Islam and it belongs to Muslims. The impact of Palestine on the world of Islam and concepts like unity and resistance manifests its significance. The issue of Palestine and supporting it result in a new cultural, social, and political alignment in the Islamic region. This issue has attracted the attention of the world from the beginning. Regarding the issue of Palestine and the formation of the illegitimate Israeli regime, Iran has undergone two different periods: before the Islamic revolution and after the Islamic revolution. By studying the effect of Iran and the United Nations on offering resolutions for Palestine, we can see the role and position of each of them in this regard.
The United Nations has proposed a solution to the Palestinian issue by partitioning Palestine into two separate Hebrew and Palestinian states and the city of Jerusalem as an international region. Although continuous conflicts and uprisings show the failure of this solution, namely Resolution 181, the Islamic Republic of Iran believes that the solution to this problem can only be found by the Palestinian people through a referendum.
The "referendum" solution has been personally proposed by the Leader of the Islamic Revolution and has been repeatedly emphasized in international meetings. Successive governments in the Islamic Republic, based on the role and importance of the Palestinian cause, have consistently supported the Palestinian cause in foreign policy, and this support has been constant with the change of the presidents of the Islamic Republic. The general opinion is that the only solution offered by Iran is resistance while proposing a fundamental solution is something else. But what the Iranian proposal has been like so far, and what steps it has taken and should follow in the future occupy the writer's mind.
The main question that the writer raises is that despite the obvious support for the Palestinian cause, how has the main solution, the "referendum", been taken into consideration in the United Nations by Islamic Republic administrations? In addition to this question, there are other sub-questions: What was the solution of the Pahlavi government before the Islamic Revolution? What is the difference between the solution offered by the Islamic Republic of Iran and the one offered by the United Nations? In these circumstances, what actions has the country's diplomatic apparatus taken and what tasks should it pursue?
The significance of this study is to understand the general rules governing the settlement of the Palestinian issue. Considering the role of various players from governments to international organizations, movements, and groups, the current study particularly concentrates on how the diplomatic apparatus interacts with international institutions about Palestine.
In addition to the above understanding, besides considering the current position of the Islamic Republic of Iran, it is necessary to carefully pursue future actions and interactions with international organizations, especially the United Nations regarding Palestine. In other words, enhancing the strengths and reducing the weaknesses in the future is another necessity.
The writer has used a descriptive-analytical method intending to know more and to explain the epistemological view towards the situation of the Iranian referendum plan. In this method, by emphasizing the applied historical approach using the data and documents of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Iran, an inferential conclusion is reached to be used for the present and the future.
From the point of view of innovation in the subject, two points can be mentioned: First, everyone knows that the position of the Islamic Republic of Iran on Palestine is to support the resistance front and it has a great share in it, but when it comes to providing a solution, it is thought that Iran's only solution has been resistance. While the main and fundamental solution of Iran is something else, and resistance is one of the next priorities. Second, the solution proposed by Iranian that prioritizes resistance has not been seriously studied in Arab research, and to highlight this issue, the present article notes the importance of a fundamental solution.
The results show that the basic solution proposed by the Islamic Republic of Iran is to emphasize the referendum which includes the indigenous people of Palestine (whether they live in Palestine or not) with all ethnicities and (religious) tendencies, including Muslim, Christian, and Jewish. Iran believes that the Palestinian issue will not be resolved without considering people’s right to self-determination and holding a referendum. But regarding implementation, the referendum plan has not been put into action by international organizations so far, and due to the non-implementation of the referendum plan, it has become impossible to evaluate it descriptively; On the other hand, considering the existing issues and records up to now, the administration, on behalf of the government, has not pursued the referendum plan as a continuous demand in recent years, except for its registration in the United Nations while this action is not sufficient. What is certain is that the presentation of the "referendum" solution was designed and proposed by the Supreme Leader himself, and contrary to popular belief, this solution is a fundamental one for Palestine and takes precedence over the resistance.
One of the suggestions of the present article, considering the results, is to confirm and continue the resistance until a referendum is held. On the other hand, the government and the diplomatic apparatus must always follow the idea of the referendum in international organizations and have a plan for it. Compared to Iran's plan, the United Nations partition plan has not considered the opinion of the Palestinian people, however, Iran's solution is considering people's right to self-determination, which has a legal nature and should be followed in international organizations.

الكلمات الرئيسية [English]

  • The Palestinian cause
  • the Islamic Revolution
  • United Nations Organization
  • the project of the Islamic Republic of Iran
  • the solution of the Palestinian issue

راه حل­های پیشنهادی برای مسئله فلسطین

 بررسی مقایسه ای نقش ایران و سازمان های بین المللی

بهزاد دانشفر1   

 نایف معروف2

 

چکیده

     فلسطین مهمترین مسئله در جهان اسلام است؛ پایگاه تمدن اسلامی که متعلق به مسلمانان بوده وهنوز هم هست. این همان چیزی است که اهمیتش را امروز در ظهور مفاهیمی مانند اتحاد و مقاومت نشان می دهد، و به نوبه خود منجر به نوعی همگرایی در جهان اسلام در سطوح جدید فرهنگی، اجتماعی و سیاسی می شود. مسئله فلسطین از ابتدا توجه جهانی را به خود جلب کرده است. ایران در برخورد با مسئله فلسطین و شکل­گیری رژیم نامشروع اسرائیل دو مرحله مختلف را گذرانده است: مرحله اول قبل از انقلاب اسلامی در نظام شاهنشاهی پهلوی و مرحله دوم بعداز انقلاب اسلامی یعنی جمهوری اسلامی که نوع تعامل ومواضع آن دو مقطع درسازمان­های بین المللی مورد توجه است. با اذعان به نقش سازمان های بین المللی در تأسیس رژیم اسرائیل و مشروعیت دهی به آن وتلاش ها برای حل این مسئله با بیش از هفتاد سال؛ نگارنده به دنبال این سوال است که راه حل پیشنهادی ایران  در مقایسه با راه حل سازمان های بین المللی چگونه بوده است؟ نگارنده با هدف شناخت بیشتر وتبیین آن(نگاه معرفتی) از روش توصیفی – تحلیلی استفاده نموده است. از نتایج به دست آمده ناکارآمدی، اجرای طرح سازمان های بین المللی وسازمان ملل تاکنون است که در مقابل، راه حل جمهوری اسلامی ایران (باتاکید بر همه­پرسی داخلی در فلسطین) تا این لحظه درسازمان های بین المللی به اجرا در نیامده تا مورد ارزیابی توصیفی قرار گیرد؛ از سوی دیگر دولت نیز به نمایندگی از حاکمیت مطالبه متداوم طرح را درسازمان ملل ننموده است.

کلیدواژه­ها: مسئله فلسطین، انقلاب اسلامی، سازمان ملل متحد، جمهوری اسلامی ایران، راه حل مسئله فلسطین.

 



1  دکتری علوم سیاسی وعضو هیات علمی گروه معارف اسلامی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرج، البرز،ایران (نویسنده مسئول):  b.daneshfar@iran.ir

2  استاد ادبیات عرب و اندیشه اسلامی، دانشگاه الامام الاوزاعي، بیروت، لبنان : info@ouzai.org