عنوان المقالة [English]
The scientific exegesis of Quran is one of the longstanding topics that have been introduced in history of Quranic exegesis and exegetic methods. In addition to the given development trend, analysis on various comments and attitudes from scientific exegesis of Holy Quran has been deemed important in different eras, especially at present age. Inter alia, Tantawi has become salient more than any other Quranic exegetes and Al-Jawahir more well-known than any other exegesis in the field of studies on scientific interpretation of the Holy Quran. The scientific approach taken by the author of Al-Jawahir for interpretation of Quranic verses at that time has made this book as a comprehensive work that draws the attention of people. However, this dimension gradually diminished and went out of sight. Thus, scholars have never studied this book really and they did not properly clarify its position among other Quranic exegeses. The current study aims to analyze the so-called scientific exegesis of Tantawi Jawhari by Mohammad Abduh that has sometimes highly drawn attention and been referred to by the scientific conventions. Tantawi argued that it was not possible to perceive Holy Quran regardless utilization from modern knowledge. Some scientists have praised Tantawi while others criticized him and even assumed him as a fantastic person. Tantawi employed modern science topics perception of Quran by all methods and tried to compare and expose many scientific theories and subjects to Quranic verses and he has interpreted it by subjective exegesis. He did not avoid from redundancy in dealing with scientific topics and resorted to modern sciences when intended to perceive purpose of scientific verses in Holy Quran and he believed in absolute assumption of knowledge and interpreted Holy Quran from the beginning to the end by scientific approach.
However, as one of scholars in intellectual religious revival and rational doctrine in the Islamic world, Mohammad Abduh has justified utilization from scientific findings in interpretation of Quran in his Quranic exegesis and the exegesis of Tantawi was deemed as the first interpretation of Holy Quran that exceeded from imitative methods of previous exegeses at his own age. He did not pass through each of verses of Holy Quran unless he extracted a scientific point regarding remedy of various social diseases there. By presentation of several reasons and various and repeated examples he intends to convince his audiences that Holy Quran is a book for humans in yesterday, today and tomorrow. Therefore, he interacted with Quran by taking such an approach and could propose what that would meet various human needs within the framework of scientific teachings of Quran to our generation and it can be implied that he welcomed scientific method in his exegesis and tried to interpret Quran based on requirements of modern world and to avoid from traditional method in this trend and to present Quranic exegesis based on rational bases, but he strongly opposed to hermeneutics of Quranic verses but he never entered his own attitude and viewpoint in this interpretation while he sought for prosperity of community with reliance on lexical and rational topics. Overall, Abduh assumes Holy Quran as divine guidance book and not book of history, science, nature, astronomy and cosmology etc. As a result, we could not consider Abduh as one of extremists in scientific exegesis of Quran; although, some of researchers tried to address him as radical adherents and supporters of scientific exegesis based on some exegetic comments of Abduh and they assumed such an approach as consequences of his reformist movement, but most of his exegetic views are free from exaggerated use of modern scientific findings and only by expression of few cases they could not be extended to all of his works and at the same time Tantawi’s exegesis is not a pure scientific interpretation of Holy Quran as what some people may assume though he may exaggerate concerning scientific verses in Quran. This study was conducted using descriptive-analytical method.
الكلمات الرئيسية [English]
تحلیل انتقادی دیدگاه های طنطاوی جوهری و محمد عبده در تفسیرعلمی قرآن
سید مصطفی مناقب**
یکی از مهمترین مباحث تفسیری، بحث تفسیرعلمی، بررسی دیدگاههای مفسران علمی و روش آنهاست. تفسیر طنطاوی یکی از مشهورترین تفاسیرعلمی در عصر جدید است. او معتقد است که شناخت قرآن بدون بهره گیری از دانش های نو ممکن نیست. همچنین، تفسیرعبده به دلیل بهره مندی از علم جدید، یکی از مهمترین تفسیرهای قرآنی قلمداد می شود. این مقاله با روش توصیفی و تحلیلی به بررسی دیدگاه طنطاوی و عبده در آیات علمی می پردازد. از مهمترین نتایج حاصل این پژوهش، اینکه عبده به روش علمی در تفسیر خود روی خوش نشان داد و سعی می کرد قرآن را براساس نیازهای جهان مدرن تفسیر کند و در این راه کوشید تا از شیوه سنتی دوری کند و براساس مبانی عقلی به تفسیر قرآن بپردازد. ولی با تأویل آیات قرآن سخت مخالفت می کرد و هرگز نگرش و دیدگاه خود را وارد تفسیر نکرده است. بنابراین او را نمی توانیم از افراط گرایان به تفسیرعلمی بدانیم. اما طنطاوی مورد انتقاد بسیاری از مفسران و دانشمندان قرار گرفت و حتی وی را فردی خیال پرداز خواندند. و تفسیرش بدان گونه که پنداشته می شود، تفسیر علمی نیست و نگرش او به آیات هستی و طبیعی از لون دیگر است.
کلیدواژگان: قرآن کریم، جامعیت قرآن، تفسير علمي، طنطاوی جوهری، محمد عبده.