عنوان المقالة [English]
After the death of Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him), the infallible Imams (peace be upon them) taught their followers religious doctrines and other necessary tasks to protect Islam and guide the society, when and where they could. According to Ahl al-Bayt’s instructions and to deepen beliefs, Shia considered their scientific and educational activities based on Imams’s visions and continuity and adherence to Prophet Mohammad’s movement as a necessary task to teach and deepening religious concepts. So, mosques, homes, ancient schools and holy places were paid attention. Although Imamiyyah scientific places have been noticed in the next periods, but we cannot review those periods, or have a comparative survey with existing situation, and examine their strength and weakness to have a historical analysis, because we do not have any precise vision about it historically. This paper is based on study method in valid and primary resources in educational structure, and have found that Imamiyyah Shia, to teach their beliefs, was affected by theological system of Imamat in science learning field, and pioneered to establish new scientific centers and places including schools and Dar al-Elms. In other words, Shia were not separated from Islam, and Imams have continued prophet’s way in Islamic educational system. Also, Shia participated in maximum mode, even in hard political and social situations, to reinforce and establish their independence and distinction. In this way, Imamiyyah Shia paid attention to places, times, sections and instruments in addition to their notices to educational topics and texts. But due to inattention of researchers and hiding important and innovative role of Shia in establishing new centers and places, it is publicly believed that others have been pioneers in this field.
So, in this paper we try to examine educational centers and places historically and based on hadith analysis by using valid primary resources and hadith phrases. Also we try to answer these questions: What is the contribution of Shia to this field in the first five centuries? What are the components and elements of Shia educational system in the first five centuries? Which stages were there in the first five centuries? When exactly did Shia educational system begin in the first five centuries?
One of the purposes of this study is to overcome negligence and inattention to this issue. The most important reasons for this are exterior look to Shiism, considering it as a deviation and sectarian or trying to segregate it from Islam, and also the lack of accurate recognition of history, their beliefs and behaviors, developments of history, and weakness in available researches. Although Shia have not had political power in some periods of times, so their educational and scientific experiences were not transmitted to their later generations accurately and completely, but according to written historical and hadith resources in Shia and Sunni books, it has connected its historical movement and essential beliefs to Ahl al-Bayt, so it could pass the crises and problems and guarantee its life. After examining historical conditions of foundation and activities of Imamiyyah educational centers and places, we concluded that Imamiyyah Shia have been affected by Imams’ religious beliefs and their educational methods, so they have publicly and specially used mosques, homes, and schools capacities to science acquirement, but after historical changes and Shia growth and development, variety of topics in religious issues, need explanation and defense of beliefs, Shia established its own libraries and Dar al-Elms. Dispersion of educational places presented valuable statistics about scientific places and centers in Islam worldwide. Also it was found that Imamiyyah Shia used morning time for education because they believed it is the best time in a day for learning.
It was designed different educational stages by separating educational grades in official educational centers. It was required to notice to structural stages and content priority levels. this necessity was arising from educational goals and doctrines which make centers to design education in different levels. In Imams views, there are differences between each group need in learning, so they should be divided. So, they have noticed and emphasized on needs and contents priorities. For example, they have advised to teach kids in their second six years in their lives, therefor they were sent to school to learn elementary sciences in these ages. Thus, reading, writing, Islamic etiquette, Quran, poet, a few mathematics and Arabic literature were important topics learnt to kids by shia teachers like Hassan and Komayt. After elementary stage, the newt stage was understanding and learning jurisprudence hadith and Ijtihad in different sciences. So, some of shia went to complementary stage after graduating from schools. According to learning Islamic sciences importance, it seems shia had to know hadith knowledge and jurisprudence rulings at first, then they try to quote hadith and issue fatwa, or study and improve skills in other specialist topics.
الكلمات الرئيسية [English]
علی مرتضوی مهر
محمد جواد یاوری
بعد از رحلت رسول خدا(ص)، ائمه اطهار(ع) با هدف حراست از دین خدا و هدایت جامعه اسلامی، آموزههای دینی و غیر آنرا به پیروان خویش در هر مکان یا زمانی که مقدور بود، آموزش دادند. برپایه این امر مسجد، منزل، مکتبخانه و مکانهای مقدس مورد توجه قرار گرفت. در دورههای بعد نیز اگرچه به برخی مکانهای علمی امامیه اشاره شده است، اما بهدلیل کاستیهای پژوهشی در این زمینه، تصویر دقیقی از آنها وجود ندارد تا بتوان ضمن بازخوانی گذشته و بررسی تطبیقی آن با وضعیت موجود، ضعفها یا نقاط قوت را بررسی و تحلیل تاریخی شود. همچنین تنها تصور رایج برآن است که شیعه در تأسیس مراکز علمی وامدار دیگران بوده و هیچگونه نوآوری نداشته است. ازاینرو، این پژوهش برآن است تا در یک بررسی تاریخی و روایی، دریابد که مکانها، پراکندگی مراکز، زمان و مراحل آموزشی امامیه در قرون نخست هجری بهدلیل گستردگی فعالیتها، از چه وضعیت تاریخی برخودار است؟ نتایج پژوهش که مبتنی بر روش مطالعه در منابع دست اول و معتبر در زمینه ساختار آموزشی است، نشان می دهد که شیعیان امامیه بهدلیل نیاز به تدریس باورهای خود، متأثر از نظام امامت الهی در عرصه علمآموزی بوده و در تأسیس مکانها و مراکز جدید علمی از جمله مدرسه و دارالعلم نسبت دیگر مسلمانان پیشگام بوده اند.
کلیدواژهها: شیعیان امامیه، نظام آموزشی، عناصر آموزشی، محتوای آموزشی