الخوارزمی طود الجبر و الفلک و الأسطرلاب

نوع المستند: علمی ـ پژوهشی

المؤلف

عضو الهیئة العلمیة و مدیر قسم اللغة العربیة و آدابها معهد العلوم الانسانیة و الدراسات الثقافیة ـ طهران

المستخلص

عندما شملتِ الأرضَ رحمة السماء، و سادت رسالة خاتم الأنبیاء(ص) و رفرف بیرقُ الإسلام على أرجاء المعمورة بشریعته السمحاء، من الصین الى الأندلس و القارة السوداء، انتشرت اللغة العربیة على اعتبارها لغة القرآن و الدین فی کافة البلاد الإسلامیة و استعمل المسلمون العربیة فی جلّ ما دوّنوه من مصنفات و مؤلفات و اکتشافات و اختراعات. أمّا الشعب الایرانی فسرْعان ما استوعب معنى الدین الجدید حیث اعتنق الایرانیون الاسلام الذی تفاعل مع تراثهم الحضاری و اندمجوا فیه و استطاعوا أن یکونوا أکبر و أعظم غصون شجرة علومه الیانعة، و منهم:
أبو عبد الله محمد بن موسی الخورازمی، من أهل خورازم ببلاد فارس.
کان عالماً بالریاضیات فلکیاً جغرافیاً. له فضل فی تعریف العرب و الأوروبیین بنظام الأعداد الهندی، وضع کتابا فی الحساب یعتبر الأول من نوعه و کان أول کتاب دخل اوروبا و بقی زمنا طویلاً مرجع العلماء و التجار و الحاسبین.
عُرف علم الحساب عدة قرون باسم الغورتمی نسبة إلی الخورازمی. یعتبر مؤسس علم الجبر علما مستقلاً عن الحساب، و قد قام بحل معادلات الدرجة الثانیة بطرق هندسیة و أوجد جذریها إذا کانا موجبین. و نشر أول جداول عربیة عن المثلثات للجیوب و الظلال. ترجمت إلى الأتینیة فی القرن 12 المیلادی. و یعتقد أنه اشترک فی قیاس محیط الأرض أیام المأمون کما أدخل تحسینات على جغرافیة بطلمیوس، و نشر کتاب «صورة الأرض».

الكلمات الرئيسية


عنوان المقالة [English]

Khawarazmi: The Pioneer of Algebra, Cosmology and Astrolabe

المؤلف [English]

  • Kaiss Al-Kaiss
Associate Professor, Institute for Humanities and cultural Studies
المستخلص [English]

Abu Abdullah Mohammad Ibn Musa al-Khawarizmi was born at Khawarizm (Kheva), south of Aral sea. Very little is known about his early life, except for the fact that his parents had migrated to a place south of Baghdad. The exact dates of his birth and death are also not known, but it is established that he flourished under Al- Mamun at Baghdad through 813-833 and probably died around 840 A.D.
Khawarizmi was a mathematician, astronomer and geographer. He was perhaps one of the greatest mathematicians who ever lived, as, in fact, he was the founder of several branches and basic concepts of mathematics. He influenced mathematical thought to a greater extent than any other mediaeval writer. His work on algebra was outstanding, as he not only initiated the subject in a systematic form but he also developed it to the extent of giving analytical solutions of linear and quadratic equations, which established him as the founder of Algebra. The very name Algebra has been derived from his famous book Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah. His arithmetic synthesised Greek and Hindu knowledge and also contained his own contribution of fundamental importance to mathematics and science. Thus, he explained the use of zero, a numeral of fundamental importance developed by the Arabs. Similarly, he developed the decimal system so that the overall system of numerals, 'algorithm' or 'algorizm' is named after him. In addition to introducing the Indian system of numerals (now generally known as Arabic numerals), he developed at length several arithmetical procedures, including operations on fractions. It was through his work that the system of numerals was first introduced to Arabs and later to Europe, through its translations in European languages. He developed in detail trigonometric tables containing the sine functions, which were probably extrapolated to tangent functions by Maslama. He also perfected the geometric representation of conic sections and developed the calculus of two errors, which practically led him to the concept of differentiation. He is also reported to have collaborated in the degree measurements ordered by Mamun al-Rashid which were aimed at measuring the volume and circumference of the earth.